Existential significance of habits

Keywords: unconscious mental processes, habit, meaningful life (existential) values.


Habits are an important and integral part of our lives. Many habits are formed from early childhood. Throughout life, habits are also formed in parallel with the formation of character, accepted social norms, attitudes and other, mostly external, circumstances in which a person is and develops. Rituals and habits form the basis of our day, they are what we can rely on. They affect our performance, efficiency, physical and mental health. Habits are performed automatically and often unnoticed by the person himself, because they are in our subconscious. This saves our time and inner energy for more important actions that require concentration and effort. Given how habits are formed, tracking them can give us valuable information about a person: what he is aimed at, what are his life values, what comes first in his life, and what is secondary. Our empirical research is aimed at revealing the unconscious meaning of habit, because, as a rule, the cause of the habit is forgotten, and the habit itself becomes an unconscious automatism. Our subjects, tracking their habits, were able to understand why they have these habits, what they need close in this way, and what are the meaning of life (existential) values.


Andreas Hirschi, Anne Herrmann, Noemi Nagy, Daniel Spurk. (2016). All in the name of work? Nonwork orientations as predictors of salary, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 95-96, P 45-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2016.07.006.
Bezrukova V.S. (2000). Fundamentals of Spiritual Culture (Teacher’s Encyclopedic Dictionary). Ekaterinburg. P 937. (in Russian)
Blair T. Johnson, Rebecca L. Acabchuk. (2018). What are the keys to a longer, happier life? Answers from five decades of health psychology research. Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 196, P 218-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.11.001.
Caleb Gardner, Arthur Kleinman. (2021). Medicine and the unconscious. The Lancet, The Art of Medicine, Vol. 398, issue 10295, P 112-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01460-4.
Duhigg Ch. (2016). Why We Do What We Do In Life And Business. Moskva: Kar'era Press. P 416. (in Russian)
Elizabeth M. Altmaier. (2020). Finding and creating meaning in life during reversals and revisions. Navigating Life Transitions for Meaning. United States: Academic Press. P 167-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-818849-1.00010-2.
Eyal N., Hoover R. (2016). Hooked. How to Build Habit-Forming Products. Moskva: Mann, Ivanov i Ferber. P 272. (in Russian)
Gippenrejter Y. B. (2002). Introduction to General Psycology. Course of lectures: textbook. Moskva: «CHeRo», P 336. (in Russian)
Gorbunova E.V., Fateeva K.N., Haidov S.K. (2019). Cartesian Concept of Self-Consciousness in the Light of Nonequilibrium System Theary. Economic and socio-humanitarian studies, № 1 (21). https://doi.org/10.24151/2409-1073-2019-1-88-92 . (in Russian)
James William. (2018). Psychology. Moskva: Ripol klassik. P 616. (in Russian)
Jina Ahn, Bryan J. Dik, Ruby Hornback. (2017). The experience of career change driven by a sense of calling: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 102, P 48-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.07.003.
Jun Kohyama. (2016). Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life. Sleep Science, Vol. 9, Issue 3, P 153-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.slsci.2016.09.002.
Kabardov М.К. (2020). Brain and mind: from the I.M. Sechenov-I.P. Pavlov physiological schools to the B.M. Teplov-V.D. Nebylitsyn differential psychophysiological school (presentation of the report). Personality in a changing world: health, adaptation, development, Т.8, №1 (28). https://doi.org/10.23888/humJ20201115-133. (in Russian)
Karen D. Ersche, Tsen-Vei Lim. (2017). Creature of Habits: A self-report measure of habitual routines and automatic tendencies in everyday life. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 116, P 73-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.024.
Karyaka І.V. (2016). Psychological features of displaying attitude in the process of human mental activity. Scientific Journal “ScienceRise”, №4/1(21). https://doi.org/10.15587/2313-8416.2016.67454 . (in Ukraine)
Katunin A.V. (2015). The Origins of the Cognitive Unconscious Concept in the Philosophy of Plato. Ideas and Ideals, №2 (24), Т. 2. https://doi.org/10.17212/2075-0862-2015-2.2-44-52 . (in Russian)
Kentaro Mori, Yu Kaiho, Yasutake Tomata, Mamoru Narita, Fumiya Tanji, Kemmyo Sugiyama, Yumi Sugawara, Ichiro Tsuji. (2017). Sense of life worth living (ikigai) and incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: The Tsurugaya Project. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 95, P 62-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.02.013.
Kevin G. Volpp, George Loewenstein. (2020). What is a habbit? Diverse mechanisms that can produce sustained behavior change. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, Vol. 161, P 36-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2020.10.002.
Kiran McCloskey, Blair T. Johnson. (2021). You are what you repeatedly do: Links between personality and habit. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 181, 111000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111000.
Laurent Waroquie, Marlène Abadie, Zoltan Dienes. (2020). Distinguishing the role of conscious and unconscious knowledge in evaluative conditioning. Cognition, Vol. 205, 104460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104460.
Leibniz W. (1982-89). Works in 4 volumes. Philosophical legacy. Moskva: Mysl'. (in Russian)
M. Lindell Joseph PhD, RN. (2019). Developing Healthy Habits: A Faith-Based Interdisciplinary Action Framework. Nurse Leader, Vol. 17, Issue 6, P 498-504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mnl.2019.09.006.
Meshcheryakov B. G., Zіnchenko V. P. (2002). The large psychological dictionary. 3rd edition. Moskva: Prajm-Evroznak. P 672. (in Russian)
Miao Miao, Lei Zheng, Yiqun Gan. (2021). Future-oriented function of meaning in life: Promoting hope via future temporal focus. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 179, 110897. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.110897.
Michael F.Mascolo. (2017). How objectivity undermines the study of personhood: Toward an intersubjective epistemology for psychological science. New Ideas in Psychology, Vol. 44, P 41-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2016.11.005.
Mozzhilin S.I. (2020). Transcendental Subject, Spirit and Identity: from I. Kant to C.G. Jung. Bulletin of the Saratov University. New episode. Philosophy Series. Psychology. Pedagogy, Vol. 20, Issue 2. P 154-158. https://doi.org/10.18500/1819-7671-2020-20-2-154-158. (in Russian)
Musijchuk М.V. (2018). Philosophical consulting as a direction of psychotherapy: from “human habits” to “person of faith”. Medical psychology in Russia, Vol.10, №6. https://doi.org/10.24411/2219-8245-2018-16080. (in Russian)
Myron Tsikandilakis, Persefoni Bali, Jan Derrfuss, Peter Chapman. (2019). The unconscious mind: From classical theoretical controversy to controversial contemporary research and a practical illustration of the “error of our ways”. Consciousness and Cognition, Vol. 74, 102771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2019.102771.
Nemov R.S. (2019). General Psychology in 3 volumes. Volume 1. Introduction to Psychology: Textbook and Workshop for Academic Bachelor’s Degree. 6th edition. Moskva: Yurajt. P 726. (in Russian)
Preobrazhenskij A. (2009). Don Juan’s teachings. A treatise on habits.. Moskva: Centrpoligraf. P 544. (in Russian)
Reza Davari Arkadani. (2006). Philosophy and the future. Moscow University Bulletin. Vol. 7. https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/filosofiya-i-buduschee . (in Russian)
Robert Hogan, Ryne A. Sherman. (2020). Personality theory and the nature of human nature. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 152, 109561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109561.
Sally Walters. (1994). Algorithms and archetypes: Evolutionary psychology and Carl Jung's theory of the collective unconscious. Journal of Social and Evolutionary System, Vol. 17, Issue 3, P 287-306. https://doi.org/10.1016/1061-7361(94)90013-2.
Savrey V.Ya. (2017). Leibniz. The Universal Genius in Search of the Synthesis of Science, Philosophy and Theology. Ideas and Ideals, №2 (32), Vol. 1. https://doi.org/10.17212/2075-0862-2017-2.1-9-17. (in Russian)
Schneider E., Marc Alain Zust, Sergej Wuethrich, Roland Wiest, Simon Ruch, Katarina Henke. (2021). Larger capacity for unconscious versus conscious episodic memory. Current Biology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.06.012.
Scott D. Landers, Richard A. Settersten Jr. (2019). The inseparability of human agency and linked lives. Advances in Life Course Research, Vol. 42, 100306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2019.100306.
Sharova N. V. (2007). General Psychology: Personality Psychology. Yaroslavl': YAGPU. P 79. (in Russian)
Shulamith Kreitler. (2019). Towards a consensual model in personality psychology. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 147, P 156-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.03.009.
Uznadze D. N. (2004). General Psychology, trans. from the Georgian E.Sh. Chomakhidze; ed. I.V. Imedadze. Moskva: Smysl. P 413. (in Russian)
W.H.R. Rivers M.D. LOND. (1917). Freud’s psychology of the unconscious. The Lancet, Vol. 189, Issue 4894, P 912-914. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)44819-1.
How to Cite
Shashkova, O., & Lanovenko, Y. (2021). Existential significance of habits. Herald of Kyiv Institute of Business and Technology, 46(4), 57-66. https://doi.org/10.37203/kibit.2020.46.07