COPING STRATEGIES AND MODELS OF OVERCOMING POST-STRESS CONDITIONS
The article is devoted to the research of coping strategies on the adaptation process. Actions associated with the COVID 19 pandemic touched many areas of life. They provided increased requirements for human mental activity, creating additional stresses, which led to an increase in neuropsychiatric disorders. Models of overcoming post-stress states are considered. The role of external and internal factors in the formation and overcoming of post-stress states and disorders of adaptation is analyzed in the article. In the process of studying the underlying patterns and mechanisms of adaptation to normal life, two psychological models of overcoming post-stress states were identified: psychodynamic and cognitive. The psychodynamic model notes that successful adaptation of personality requires awareness of all aspects of traumatic experience and integration through the scheme "traumatic stress - negation - relapse - acceptance". The cognitive model is a cognitive theory of stress, that is, a cognitive assessment of a person's most traumatic event, and himself in it. Three types of assessment were proposed to determine a person's response to a traumatic event: primary, secondary stress assessment, and reassessment. Many researchers consider the impact of stress adaptation to be one of the leading causes of disorders of adaptation. Also, the manifestations of adaptation disorders are greatly exacerbated by the simultaneous complex action of several stressors. The severity of active stressors does not always correlate with the severity of adaptation disorders, as personality traits and cultural and social norms and values contribute to the response to stress. Also, the features of the development of these disorders of adaptation disorders depend on the features of cognitive processes, personal resources of the individual involved in their regulation.
2. Freud A. (1993) The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense. Moscow. Pedagogik Press. (in Russian)
3. Horowitz, M. J. (1973). Phase oriented treatment of stress response syndromes. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 27(4), 506–515.
4. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46(8), 819–834. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.46.8.819
5. Folkman S., Schaefer C., Lazarus R. (1979) Cognitive processes as mediators of stress and coping. In V. Hamilton, D. M. Warburton (Eds), Human stress and cognition: An information processing approach. London: Willey. P. 265–298.
6. Knyazkova Y. Y. (2018) Stress and cognitive impairment. Health of Ukraine. «Cardiology, Rheumatology, Cardiac surgery» № 2 (56) April P. 33. (in Russian)
7. Bodrov V. A. (2001) Occupational Psychology. Moskva. PER SJe. (in Russian)
8. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
9. Peterson, C., Seligman, M. E., & Vaillant, G. E. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: A thirty-five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(1), 23–27. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.11
10. Janoff-Bulman, R., & Timko, C. (1987). Coping with traumatic life events: The role of denial in light of people's assumptive worlds. In C. R. Snyder & C. E. Ford (Eds.), The Plenum series on stress and coping. Coping with negative life events: Clinical and social psychological perspectives (p. 135–159). Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-9865-4_6
11. Frankenhaeuser M. (1986) A Psychobiological Framework for Research on Human Stress and Coping. In: Appley M.H., Trumbull R. (eds) Dynamics of Stress. The Plenum Series on Stress and Coping. Springer, Boston, MA https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-5122-1_6
12. Selye, H. (1956). What is stress? Metabolism. The stress of life. McGraw-Hill. P. 525–530.
13. Selye H. (1960) The story of the adaptation syndrome. M.: Meditsina. (in Russian)
14. Mechanic, D. (1962). Students under stress: A study of the social psychology of adaptation. Free Press Glencoe.
15. Bodrov V. A. (1995) Psychological stress: the development of learning and the current state of the problem. M.: Institut psikhologii RAN. (in Russian)
16. Bodrov V.A. (2001) Nonlinear model of the motivational sphere of personality. Psychological Journal. V. 22. № 2. P. 90-100. (in Russian)
17. Lazarus R. (1970) Theory of stress and psychophysiological studies. Emotional stress. under the editorship of L. Levy. Meditsina. P. 178-208. (in Russian)
18. Friedman, M., & Rosenman, R. H. (1977). The key cause: Type A behavior pattern. In A. Monat & R. H. Lazrus (Eds.), Stress and coping (pp. 203–212). New York: Columbia University Press.
19. Akarachkova Ye. S., Kotova O. V., Vershinina S. V., Ryabokon I. V. (2014) Stress and adjustment disorders. Lechashchiy vrach. № 6. Р. 61-65. (in Russian)
20. Samoylova, E. (2018). Sustainable look on the problem of rozladiv adaptacii (literature review). Psychiatry, Neurology and Medical Psychology, 1 (9), 32-37. https://doi.org/10.26565/2312-5675-2018-9-04 (in Russian)
21. Shibaev P.V. (2016) The impact of adjustment disorder on the quality of life of police officers. The Bulletin of Contemporary Clinical Medicine. 9 (6): 95-99. (in Russian)
22. Korytova G. S., Eremina Yu. A. (2015) defensive-coping behaviour: retrospective reconstruction of concept. TSPU Bulletin. 3 (156). P. 42-47. (in Russian)
23. Grinker R. R., Spiegel. J. P. (1945) Men Under Stress. London: J. & A. Churchill, Ltd.